Share on Twitter Psychologists at The University of Texas at Austin found that children flexibly choose when to imitate and when to innovate the behavior of others, demonstrating that children are precocious social learners.“There’s nothing children are more interested in than other people,” said UT Austin psychologist Cristine Legare. “Acquiring the skills and practices of their social groups is the fundamental task of childhood.”In order to function within their social groups, children have to learn both technical skills with instrumental goals, such as using a fork and knife to cut food, and social conventions with goals based on social conformity, such as forms of greeting (for example: handshakes, kissing and bowing). LinkedIn Share Pinterest Email Share on Facebook This research, published in Cognition, demonstrates that children are sensitive to the distinction between instrumental and conventional goals and flexibly adapt their behavior accordingly.“The more carefully you imitate a social convention, the better, more reliable group member you are. Tasks with instrumental goals allow for more innovation,” Legare said. “Young children adjust how carefully they imitate and when they innovate, depending on the perceived goal of the behavior or reason for action.”Legare and her colleagues examined imitative and innovative behavior in children between the ages of 4 and 6 after watching one of two videos that illustrated conventional and instrumental uses of various geometric objects and a box.Both videos showed an experimenter performing a pattern of arbitrary but intentional tasks with the objects. In the conventional video, the start- and end-state of the objects was identical. But in the instrumental video, the experimenter used the final object in the pattern to open the box and place the object inside. After the video, children were given the same group of objects.The children imitated the conventional behavior with higher fidelity. Those who observed an instrumental behavior engaged in more innovative behavior.In a second study, children were also more accurate in detecting variation in conventional than instrumental behavior, suggesting that conventional behavior is driven by expectations for social conformity.“We are socially oriented in ways that other species are not, and we are very well equipped to acquire and adapt to the culture and skills of previous generations,” Legare said.“The core insight here is that children adapt their imitative and innovative behavior to different goals, even at very young ages, demonstrating that humans as a species are flexible, social learners,” Legare said. “Our research demonstrates that the early-developing distinction between instrumental and conventional behavior is fundamental to cultural learning in our species.”
Apr 11, 2011 (CIDRAP News) A team of US researchers recently added to the evidence that humans can and do produce antibodies that target a wide range of influenza strains, though how the findings can be exploited in the quest for a “universal” flu vaccine remains to be seen. “These datato our knowledge, for the first timequantitatively show the presence, albeit at low levels, of two populations of heterosubtypic BnAbs [broadly neutralizing antibodies] against influenza A in human serum,” says the report in the Apr 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases (CID). The research team included members from several institutions in Boston; La Jolla, Calif.; and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Maryland. Previous studies have yielded some evidence that humans produce broadly targeted flu antibodies in certain circumstances, but the new study suggests, according to the CDC experts, that such antibodies are part of the normal immune response to flu. In the CID editorial, Ruben O. Donis and Nancy J. Cox of the CDC say the finding that H5N1 vaccine induced F10-like antibodieswhich competed with F10 in biding to its target on the H5 HA stemsuggests that the volunteers developed broadly neutralizing antibodies to group 1 viruses as a result of H5N 1vaccination. They also hailed the researchers “remarkable” technique for finding F1-like antibodies in the IVIG. The authors say their findings don’t answer whether the levels of either group 1 or group 2 antibodies they found would actually prevent illness, but the quantitative data suggest that the levels are borderline or below “titers that would traditionally be considered protective.” “We show that prevaccination serum samples have baseline heterosubtypic HA Ab [antibody] binding activity to both group 1 and 2 HA subtypes including H5 and H7, to which these subjects are most likely unexposed because of their US geographic location,” the report says. The researchers found evidence that about 0.01% of the IVIG consisted of H5 antibodies and that about 0.001% consisted of F10-like antibodies. Further, they found that these H5 antibodies reacted with H1, H3, and, to a lesser extent, H7 viruses. The F10-like antibodies bound to H1 and H5 (group 1) viruses, but not to H3 and H7 (group 2). They also say the origins of the cross-reactive antibodies are a mystery. But the H5N1 vaccine study participants and the IVIG donors probably had been exposed to Group 1 (H1N1) and Group 2 (H3N2) viruses through vaccination or infection, and this may have given rise to H5- and H7-binding antibodies, the authors speculate. In an accompanying CID editorial, two leading flu experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) called the findings “auspicious” for the development of a universal flu vaccine. In the other part of the study, the investigators looked for antibodies in commercially prepared intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) derived from thousands of plasma donors. The team’s technique involved the use of magnetic beads to immobilize HA from a 2004 H5N1 virus collected in Vietnam to purify F10-like and anti-H5 antibodies from the IVIG. Few or none of the plasma donors would’ve been expected to have any immunity to H5 viruses, since H5N1 vaccines have been used only in clinical trials, and H5N1 infections have not been reported in the United States. The researchers tested serum samples from participants in an H5N1 flu vaccine study and also looked in a commercial preparation of intravenous immunoglobulin (an antibody preparation made from blood plasma and used to treat certain diseases). In both cases they found low levels of broadly neutralizing influenza A antibodies, including antibodies covering both of the major influenza A groups. “”The observation that neutralizing antibodies to epitopes presenting in multiple HA subtypes . . . are part of the normal human immune repertoire is auspicious for universal influenza vaccine development, because it implies that broad protection may be elicited by enhancing the immunodominance of epitopes [sites] on the stem of engineered HA antigens,” Donis and Cox write. They add that this approach is currently being “intensively investigated” in academic, government, and industry labs. The investigators aimed to identify antibodies to a wide range of influenza A viruses, including both phylogenetic groups. Influenza A viruses come with 16 different subtypes of HA. Group 1 includes H1, H2, H5, H6, H8, H9, H11, H12, H13, and H16, while group 2 includes H3, H4, H7, H10, H14, and H15. Common seasonal flu viruses include 2009 H1N1, from group 1, and H3N2, from group 2 (in addition to influenza B). “The current study shows that people can make such antibodies, which is also important,” he said. “How such findings will be translated into a vaccine isn’t known, but trial and error with different antigens and methods of presentation, including the use of adjuvants, will likely be productive.” Sui J, Sheehan J, Hwang WC, et al. Wide prevalence of heterosubtypic broadly neutralizing human anti-influenza A antibodies. Clin Infect Dis 2011 Apr 15;52(8):1003-9 [Abstract] Both the pre- and post-vaccination samples were found to contain antibodies to H3, H5, and H7 HAs, the report says. The post-vaccination samples showed an increase in H5 and H7 antibodies but not in H3 antibodies. In addition, the team found evidence of F10-like antibodies in both sets of samples, with the titer increasing 1.5-fold after vaccination in a majority of the volunteers. The investigators analyzed pre- and post-vaccination serum samples from 77 participants in a trial of an H5N1 flu vaccine, looking specifically for antibodies to H1, H3, H5, and H7 viruses, and they also searched for antibodies similar to a known broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, called F10, which targets a stable region on the stem of the HA protein rather than its head. The study also drew praise from virologist Vincent Racaniello, PhD, Higgins professor in the Department of Microbiology & immunology at Colombia University. Racaniello, author of Virology Blog, commented that the existence of human monoclonal antibodies that target the HA stem and neutralize a broad range of flu viruses was already known. He described the researchers’ method of purifying antibodies from the IVIG as very clever. “These antibodies can neutralize both H5 and H1 viral strains in vitro,” he told CIDRAP News by e-mail. “This observation is exciting because it shows that people can make broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, the authors have not shown that such antibodies can protect against infection in animals. More importantly, the antibodies are very rare0.001% of total immunoglobulin. Why people don’t make more of these antibodies isn’t clear, and understanding that will be important if we are going to try to induce such antibodies by immunization.” Jan 14 CIDRAP News story “Antibodies from H1N1 patients raise hope for more versatile flu vaccines” See also: Flu vaccines now in use target the head of the flu virus’s hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which evolves rapidly to evade the immune system, producing an ever-shifting spectrum of viral strains. Consequently the vaccine is reformulated each year in an effort to match the circulating viruses. Donis RO, Cox NJ. Prospecting the influenza hemagglutinin to develop universal vaccines. (Editorial) Clin Infect Dis 2011 Apr 15;52(8):1010-12 [Extract] Racaniello added that several previous studies have shown that broadly neutralizing antibodies can be generated in animals by immunizing them with an HA-stem vaccine or by prime-boost vaccination. Those findings raised the “exciting” prospect of a broadly protective flu vaccine within the next decade. The prime goal of flu vaccine researchers is to develop a vaccine that targets a more stable region of the virus, so that one dose could provide protection against many strains and last many years.
Nigeria Lassa fever outbreak grows, with 68 new cases reportedThe Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria continues this week with 68 new confirmed cases, including 4 deaths, according to the latest weekly update by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa. That’s up from 19 confirmed cases the week before.Between Jan 1 and Feb 18, Nigeria has reported a total of 913 suspected cases and 73 deaths (case-fatality rate, 8%). The median age is 32, and two thirds of patients are male.Though 17 states have reported suspected cases, Edo, Ondo and Ebonyi states are the outbreak hot spots, with Edo and Ondo accounting for 74% of confirmed cases. Those three states have established Lassa fever treatment centers, the WHO said. A total of 14 healthcare workers have been infected during this outbreak, 4 of them fatally.Lassa fever is endemic in Nigeria, but this is an unusually large outbreak. The virus, which can cause hemorrhagic symptoms that mimic Ebola, is generally spread through contact with infected rats or via the bodily fluids of an infected person. Feb 23 WHO update Chikungunya outbreak strikes Kenya’s second-largest cityThe WHO today said a chikungunya outbreak that began in the middle of December in Mombasa, Kenya’s second-largest city, has so far sickened 453 people, with 32 of the cases confirmed by lab tests.This is the first time that active chikungunya circulation has been confirmed in Mombasa, which has a population of 1.2 million and is rapidly growing, leading to overcrowding. The WHO said numerous dump sites, inadequate drainage, and stagnant water offer ample breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit the disease. The WHO also said vector-control programs are inadequate.Health officials first noticed the outbreak when an increasing number of patients in Mombasa County sought medical care for high-grade fever, joint pain, and weakness. Of eight blood samples collected on Dec 13, 2017, and tested at a lab in Nairobi, four were positive for dengue and four for chikungunya. Of 32 more samples collected in early January, 27 were positive for chikungunya.In response to the outbreak, the WHO said it is helping Kenya’s health ministry write a chikungunya response plan and assist the national emergency operations center in analyzing data and developing situation reports. Authorities are stepping up vector control, and health officials have sent alerts and fact sheets to health facilities in affected areas.The WHO said it can’t rule out the risk of more transmission in affected areas and spread to unaffected areas.Feb 27 WHO statement Study: Drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa spreads on hospital wardsA new single-center study shows that most antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were transmitted on hospital wards, but researchers failed to identify a persistent source for the bacteria. The study was published today in Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. In 2003, multidrug-resistant strains of P aeruginosa emerged as a growing concern in the Dutch hospital studied, as they led to high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, especially those being treated in intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to identify epidemiologic relationships between patients infected with this strain and common transmission routes.The researchers retrospectively matched cases at the Erasmus MC University Medical Centre in Rotterdam from 2003 to 2015. Of the 144 case-patients identified, 87 (60.4%) acquired their infection in general adult ICUs. But no relationship was identified between infection and room sharing, patient admission date, or medical staff.”Our hypothesis is that persistent sources in the innate environment play an important role in the route of transmission of this pathogen,” the authors said. “This is in agreement with current knowledge on the behaviour of this bacterium, as well as previous outbreak reports that identified the environment as source/reservoir.” Feb 27 Antimicrob Resist Infect Control study
Black people in Chicago twice as likely as whites to have COVID, study showsIn yet another study demonstrating racial disparities in the pandemic, a University of Chicago analysis has found that black people are twice as likely as whites to test positive for COVID-19.The retrospective cohort study, published today in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society, showed that 786 of 4,413 patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection. Of those 4,413 patients, 619 (24%) were black, while 75 (7%) were white and 16 (8.7%) were Asian or Mideast Indian.Average participant age was 46 years, but those infected with COVID-19 were 52 years old, on average, versus 45 for those who tested negative. The overall coronavirus infection rate was 10 times higher among patients 30 to 50 years old than among those 18 and younger (0.05 vs 0.005).Overall, men were more often infected than women (20% vs 17%), although infected blacks were disproportionately female (63% vs. 51%).Logistic regression models showed that although blacks were much more likely than others to have COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.75 to 3.97) and be hospitalized (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.38 to 5.99), they were not more likely to die.In an American Thoracic Society news release, lead study author Ayodeji Adegunsoye, MD, MS, said the results are not surprising given that underlying illnesses associated with COVID-19, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, disproportionately affect black people. “I think this really amplifies how pre-existing socioeconomic and health care disparities affect outcomes in the population,” he said.Adegunsoye also noted that black people also have a higher risk of exposure to COVID-19 because they make up a larger part of the service industry than whites and are therefore considered essential workers.He called for free, widely available COVID-19 screening, increased funding for community infection-prevention efforts, and campaigns to educate minorities on how to reduce their risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes.Jul 9 Ann Am Thorac Soc study Jul 9 American Thoracic Society news release Essential-worker absenteeism rose during initial months of pandemicToday in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) researchers report on the rise of job-specific absenteeism in March and April in the United States, especially in the fields of personal care and service, healthcare support, and food production.CDC researchers analyzed data from the Current Population Survey, a monthly national survey of approximately 54,000 households conducted by the US Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Absenteeism rates during the first 2 months of the coronavirus pandemic were compared with monthly data collected over the past 5 years.During March and April, absenteeism was reported at 5.1% for personal care and service, including childcare workers and personal care aides, versus the 2.1% expected based on previous years. Healthcare support workers had a rate of 5.0% versus 2.4% expected, and production—including meat, poultry, and fish processing workers—had 3.7% versus 2.3% expected.”Whereas the overall impact of COVID-19 on health-related workplace absenteeism in March and April was minor, increases in absenteeism in personal care and service, healthcare support, and production occupations, groups that contain or define essential critical infrastructure workforce categories, highlight the risks and concerns surrounding occupational transmission of SARS-CoV-2,” the authors said.Job categories that experienced absenteeism were unable to be performed from home because they require person-to-person contact. The authors explain that the move to remote telework for many Americans beginning in March likely helped reduce absenteeism overall. Jul 9 MMWR study Three more Ebola cases confirmed in latest DRC outbreakThree more Ebola infections were confirmed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC’s) Equateur province outbreak, raising the total to 46, the World Health Organization (WHO) African regional office said on Twitter today.One more death was reported, raising the fatality count to 19.The event began in early June, signifying the DRC’s 11th Ebola outbreak. The transmission is occurring in the northwestern part of the country, and though some cases are occurring in remote parts of the province, some cases have been detected in Mbandaka, the provincial capital, which is located on a river and has transit links to other parts of the DRC, including Kinshasa.Jul 9 WHO African regional office tweet
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A Jamaican team will compete in the World Men’s Squash Championships for the first time. SquashJamaica’s top male players will contest the 2017 World Men’s Team Squash Championships scheduled for November 27 to December 3 in Marseilles, France. This is the first time a Jamaican squad will compete in the prestigious tournament.The Jamaican team will be headlined by eight-time All Jamaica and Caribbean Champion, Chris Binnie and Jamaica’s number two ranked player, Lewis Walters. Both Binnie and Walters are expected to provide the firepower up front, as experienced competitors with skills honed on the Professional Squash Association circuit.Jamaica’s number three ranked player, Bruce Burrowes, and former All Jamaica Champion, Dane Schwier. will round out the squad. Burrowes’ determination and legendary stamina and Schwier’s experience could give the team the edge it will need to have a good showing among the world’s best players.Teams from 24 countries to competeTeams from 24 nations will do battle at the week-long championship where global kingpins Egypt are favored to win. Defending champions, England will be going all out to retain their coveted title and France will also be in contention, buoyed by their home court advantage.The grueling tournament will start with a round-robin playoff in eight groups from which the top 16 teams will progress to the knockout stage, while the remaining eight will play for positions 17-24.Jamaica seeded 21Jamaica, who are seeded at 21, will compete against Germany, 7, and Scotland 10 in the group stage of the competition.“It is going to be a tough tournament because we will be up against the best teams in the world, but all things considered we have a fighting chance,” The Jamaica Squash Association’s President, Chris Hind explained.Used to the rigors of high-level competition“Chris Binnie and Lewis Walters compete on the professional squash association circuit so they are used to the rigors of high-level competition, and Bruce Burrowes and Dane Schwier are also familiar with the pressures of international tournaments so we’re expecting a solid showing.”The team will travel to France from various locations on November 25 and 26. They will be accompanied by team manager Douglas Beckford and Rene Denis, who will serve as coach. The team’s participation in the tournament was partially funded by support from the Sports Development Foundation.
Egypt records 139 new COVID-19 cases Egypt records 223 new COVID-19 cases Egypt’s COVID-19 cases surpass 150 Egyptians wearing face masks against Covid-19 queue up to vote on August 11, 2020 for a new senate in an upper house election. Khaled Desouki | AFP Egyptians wearing face masks against Covid-19 queue up to vote on August 11, 2020 for a new senate in an upper house election. Khaled Desouki | AFPEgypt confirmed on Wednesday 165 new infections and 21 deaths from COVID-19, raising the total cases registered in the country to 99,280, including 5,461 deaths, said the Egyptian health ministry.Meanwhile, 798 were cured and discharged from hospitals in the past 24 hours, bringing the total recoveries to 74,626, according to the statement.Total recoveries in Egypt currently amount to over 75 percent of the total cases registered in the country.The most populous Arab country announced its first confirmed COVID-19 case on Feb. 14 and the first death from the highly infectious virus on March 8.Amid declining deaths and fatalities, Egypt has been easing relevant restrictions over the past couple of months as part of a coexistence plan to maintain anti-coronavirus precautionary measures while resuming economic activities.Egypt and China have been working together on fighting the pandemic through exchanging medical aid and expertise.In early February, Egypt provided aid to China to help with its fight against COVID-19 and China later sent three batches of medical aid to the North African country.Related
Farmington Voice Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) Cromwell Family Chiropractic in downtown Farmington will celebrate 25 years in business with a Friday, October 4, anniversary party – and you’re invited.From 4 p.m. to 7 p.m., look for the Rolling Stoves food truck and bounce house in the parking lot at 23280 Farmington Rd., then turn east on Orchard Street and park in the public parking lot behind the building.Dr. John Cromwell (Contributed)In 1994, Dr. Jonathan D. Cromwell and his wife, Donna, established his solo practice in downtown Farmington, after he worked for three years in a Lansing group practice. They chose the name “Cromwell Family Chiropractic” partially because they provide chiropractic care in a family atmosphere, but also because they have a deep belief in the importance of family in everything they do.A licensed, healthcare method, chiropractic gently corrects spinal misalignments to free up pinched nerves and restore normal function and pain relief. Chiropractors have helped millions of patients heal from injuries, headaches, spinal conditions, and more, for over 125 years.For more than 17 years, Cromwell was located on Grand River near Farmington Road, providing drug-free healthcare, including spinal adjustments and massage therapy.“I always said I must be a good chiropractor because the visibility of my location and signage is the worst in town and yet I am still here,” he said in a press release.(Contributed photo)In 2012, Cromwell combined with Dr. Timothy Shah, Dr. John Dimitriou, and Dr. John Wetherbee, and moved around the corner to their current building. Located just south of Grand River, the practice now has the best visibility in Farmington and is up to six massage therapists.“The number of new patients we are able to take care of has increased dramatically since adding three doctors to our practice,” said Cromwell.In 2014, the practice added spinal decompression therapy to help with healing cervical and lumbar disc and sciatic problems. This low force approach to decompressing spinal discs and freeing up nerve pressure, without using medications or surgery, has changed lives, Cromwell said.In 2015, Nutrition and Supplement Consultation was added, with supplement purchasing recently developed at nervedr.com, so patients and the public can have doctor recommendations of quality supplements delivered in two days, to their door, with competitive pricing.In 2017, the doctors added PEMF therapy to enhance patients’ cellular healing ability in the management of chronic inflammation, joint pain, radiculopathy, neuropathy, sleep issues, and anxiety.All services at Cromwell Family Chiropractic have one thing in common: they all promote healing from within.Over the past 25 years, Cromwell Family Chiropractic has supported many organizations. including the Farmington Police Benevolent Fund, Farmington Families in Action, Farmington Neighborhood House, Farmington Public Schools, the Salvation Army, and the Farmington High School Choir. They also support veterans, current military personnel, and first responders, offering them discounted care. Reported by
Strategy Analytics in a newly published report from the Device Technologies (EDT) practice, forecasts that 5G devices, from a sluggish start in 2019 will take off in 2020. The report, Global Smartphone Sales Forecast by Technology for 88 Countries to 2024 shows that within 5 years 5G phones will equal nearly half of all phones sold.South Korea is leading the 5G race at the moment but China intends to quickly become the global 5G leader. The ability of the industry to deliver lower-cost 5G smartphones will be critical to allow China to reach this goal next year. The first devices will be premium- and high-tier devices, but by the end of 2020, there will be more mid-range devices available, especially in China. The company estimates that less than 1% of phones sold in 2019 will support 5G, but that share will grow to nearly 10% in 2020. Consumers do not want to spend top dollar on a device when there are few usable networks. Operators must widen 5G availability significantly in order for the technology to become attractive for consumers.Currently, Samsung is leading in 5G smartphone industry. It has managed to take the lead in 5G predominantly due to strong sales in South Korea, as well as by expanding its share in 5G markets like the US. LG, Huawei, OPPO, vivo and Xiaomi are also among the first vendors to the market. But 2020 will be the turning point when 5G phone sales take off. All major smartphone vendors including Apple are developing 5G handsets and many more devices will launch in 2020. From 2020 onwards, 5G smartphone sales will skyrocket, led by China, the US and other developed nations in Asia and Western Europe. Growth will be rapid once prices fall and 5G network buildouts expand next year. By 2025, 5G phone sales will exceed 1 billion.Click here to download the Global Smartphone Sales Forecast by Technology for 88 Countries to 2024 report.
Share CLEVELAND – The University of West Florida was one of 118 NCAA Division II institutions to put a bevy of student-athletes on the Division II Athletic Directors Association Academic Achievement Award list it was announced today by the D2ADA. Some 4,492 student-athletes across the nation were recognized for this particular achievement, with UWF and the University of West Alabama being the only two schools from the Gulf South Conference to boast award winners. In order to be eligible for the accolades, a student-athlete must possess a cumulative grade point average of 3.5 or higher, have attended at least two years of college-level courses and have been an active member of an intercollegiate team during his/her last academic year. For information on all UWF athletics, visit www.GoArgos.com. #ARGOS#List of UWF 2011-12 D2ADA Academic Achievement Award Winners Print Friendly Version UWF places 26 on D2ADA Academic Achievement Award list